Морально-этический кодекс современного работника инженерно-технического Морально-профессиональные нормы исторически развивались от конкретного к абстракт-ному.


Чтобы посмотреть этот PDF файл с форматированием и разметкой, скачайте файл и откройте на своем компьютере.
ɍȾɄ 378 Ɇɢɪɡɨɟɜ ɒɚɣɞɚɛɟɝ Ⱥɣɞɚɛɟɝɨɜɢɱ ɞɨɤɬɨɪ ɩɟɞɚɝɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɭɤ , ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɨɪ ɤɚɮɟɞɪɵ ɩɟɞɚɝɨɝɢɤɢ Ⱦɚɝɟɫɬɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ ɬɟɥ .: ( 928 579 21 03 Ⱥɯɦɟɞɨɜɚ Ɂɚɥɢɧɚ Ɍɚɠɭɞɢɧɨɜɧɚ ɚɫɫɢɫɬɟɧɬ ɤɚɮɟɞɪɵ ɢɧɨɫɬɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɹɡɵɤɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɬɟ ɧɢ ɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɟɣ Ⱦɚɝɟɫɬɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚ ɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ ɬɟɥ .: ( 928 579 21 03 ɆɈɊȺɅɖɇɈ ɗɌɂɑȿɋɄɂɃ ɄɈȾȿɄɋ ɋɈȼɊȿɆȿɇɇɈȽɈ ɊȺȻɈɌɇɂ ɄȺ ɂɇɀȿɇȿɊɇɈ ɌȿɏɇɂɑȿɋɄɈȽɈ ɉɊɈɎɂɅə Ⱥɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹ : ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɵ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɨ ɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚ ɧɢɹ ɤ ɪɚɛɨɬɧɢɤɚɦ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɧɨ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɹ . Ⱥɜɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɩɪɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪ ɨ - ɜɚɧɚ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ . Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ : ɝɭɦɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ , ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɤɨɞɟɤɫ , ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥ ɶ - ɧɚɹ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ , ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɤɨɞɟɤɫ , ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɨɪɦɵ , ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɷɬɢɤ ɚ . Mirzoev Shaidabeg Aidabegovich Doctor of Pedagogics, professor of the chair of pedagogics, Dagestan State Technical University tel .: (928) 579 21 03 Akhmedova Zalina Tazhudinovna assistant of the chair of foreign languages for technical spec ialties, Dagestan State Technical University tel .: (928) 579 21 03 MORAL AND ETHICAL CO DE OF MO ERN EMPLOYEE OF ENGINEERING AND TECH NICAL PR FILE The summary: The article deals with the basic moral and ethical requirements for employees of enginee ring and technical profile . The authors analyzed the system of moral relations Keywords: humanism, moral code , professional activity, moral and professional code , moral principles , professional ethics ɉɪɢ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ , ɤɨɝɞɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ , ɩɟɪɟɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɨɟ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨ ɢ ɩɪɚɜɨɜɨɟ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɨ , ɪɨɫɬ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɫɚɦɨɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɬɪɭɞɨɜɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ , ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɟ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɟɟ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɨɜ , ɝɭɦɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɪɚɡɧ ɵɯ ɫɮɟɪ ɬɪɭɞɚ ɜɟɞɟɬ ɤ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɦɭ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɸ ɤɪɭɝɚ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɣ , ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɪɟɬɟ ɞɭɸɬ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɞɟɤɫɨɜ [1]. Ȼɟɡɭɫɥɨɜɧɨ , ɤɚɠɞɚɹ ɬɪɭɞɨɜɚɹ ɞɟɹɬɟɥ ɶ - ɧɨɫɬɶ ( ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨ ɨɬ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɢ ) ɛɚɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ . ɉɪɨɮɟɫɫɢ ɨ - ɧɚɥɶɧ ɚɹ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ , ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɦ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɠɢɜɵɟ ɥɸɞɢ , ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬ ɫɥɨɠɧɭɸ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɨɛ ɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ . Ʉ ɷɬɨɣ ɛ ) ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɚ ɫ ɤɨɥɥɟɝɚɦɢ ; ɜ ) ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɚ ɤ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɭ . ɗɬɢ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɢɡɭɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɬ ɢɤɨɣ . Ʉɨɧɤɪɟɬɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɠɟ ɨɛɳɢɯ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɜ ɢ ɧɨɪɦɚ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɨɫ ɨ - ɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ ɬɨɝɨ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ©ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸª ɦɨɪɚɥɶ . Ɉɧɚ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɪɚɡɞɟɥ ɟɧɢɟɦ ɬɪɭɞɚ , ɤ ɨ - ɬɨɪɨɟ ɩɨɥ ɠɢɥɨ ɧɚɱɚɥɨ ɨɬɞɟɥɟɧɢɸ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩ . ɋ ɢɯ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɥɚ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɚɦɢ ɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧ ɚ - ɥɨɜ ɫ ɤɥɢɟɧɬɚɦɢ . ɋɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɷɬɨ ɛɵɥ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɤɪɭɝ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɣ , ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɜ ɩɪɨɰ ɟɫɫɟ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲ ɟ - ɝɨ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɬɪɭɞɚ ɜɫɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɪɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ , ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɱɟɝɨ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɥɢ ɜɫ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɢ ɧɨɜɵɟ . ȼ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɚ ɬɚ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɚɹ ɫɮɟɪɚ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ . Ɉɬɧɨɲɟɧ ɢɟ ɤ ɧɟɣ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬ ɟ ɰɟ ɧ - ɧɨɫɬɶ [2] Ɇɨɪɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨɦ ɩɪɟɞɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɞɜɭɦɹ ɮɚɤɬ ɪɚɦɢ : ɜɨ ɩɟɪɜɵɯ , ɬɟɦ , ɱɬɨ ɞɚɧɧɚɹ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɹ ɞɚɟɬ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɳ ɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ , ɜɨ ɜɬɨɪɵɯ , ɬɟɦ , ɱɬɨ ɨɧɚ ɞɚɟɬ ɱɟ ɥɨɜɟɤɭ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨ , ɚ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɩɥɚɧɟ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɧɟɟ . Ɇɨɪɚɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɨɪɦɵ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɨɬ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɝɨ ɤ ɚɛɫɬɪɚɤ ɬ - ɧɨɦɭ . ɋɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɢɯ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɛɵɥɨ ɫɥɢɲɤɨɦ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɦ ɢ ɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɥɨɫɶ ɫ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɪɟɚɥ ɶ - ɧɵɦɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦɢ ɢɥɢ ɩɪɟɞɦɟ ɬɚɦɢ . ɂ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɯɨɞɟ ɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɢɯ ɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɟ ɫɨɞɟɪɠ ɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɟɬ ɨɛɳɟɟ , ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ . Ɇɨɪɚɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɞɟ ɫɵ , ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɬɚɥɢ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɵɦ ɷɤɜɢɜɚɥɟɧɬɨɦ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɦɨɪɚɥɢ , ɪɚɡɜ ɢɜɚɸɬ ɬɚɤɢɟ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɮɭɧɤɰ ɢɢ , ɤɚɤ : ɩɨɡɧɚɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ , ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɨɬɨɛɪɚɠ ɟ - ɧɢɢ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɰɟ ɫɨɜ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɬɪɭɞɚ ɜ ɤɨɧ ɤɪɟɬɧɵɯ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ; ɪɟɝɭɥɹɬɢɜɧɭɸ ( ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɶɸ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɨɜ ɫ ɨɛɳ ɟ - ɫɬɜɨɦ ; ɧɚɛɨɪɨɦ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪ ɢɟɦɨɜ ɬ ɪɭɞɚ ); ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɧɨ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɭɸ ( ɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚ ɜ - ɥɟɧɢɹ ɨ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɢɞɟɚɥɟ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɚ , ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɛɹɡɚ ɧɨɫɬɶ , ɱɟɫɬɶ , ɫɨɜɟɫɬɶ , ɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜɨɫɬɶ ) [3]. ɋɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɧɭɬɶ , ɱɬɨ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɷɬɢɤɚ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɩɟɪ ɟ - ɫɟɱɟɧɢɢ ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ , ɧɨɪɦ ɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɢ ɩɪɢɤɥɚɞɧɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɱɚɫɬɟɣ ( ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜ ) ɷɬɢɤɢ , ɟɟ ɫ ɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɡɚɞɚɧɢɹɦɢ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ . ɇɚ ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜ ɸɬɫɹ ɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɶ , ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɚ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢ ɣ , ɢɯ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɢ ɪɨɥɶ ɜ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ , ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɢ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɢ ɪɚ ɜɢɬɢɹ [4] Ɉɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɜɚɠɧɵɯ ɢ ɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɬɢɤɢ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɧɚɹ ɷɬɢɤɚ . Ʉɚɤ ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɨɪɦ , ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɩ ɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɚ , ɨɧɚ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɞɚɜɧɨ . Ʉ ɱɢɫɥɭ ɟɟ ɧɨɪɦ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɬɧɟɫɬɢ ɬɚɤɢɟ , ɤɚɤ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɞɨɛɪɨɫɨɜɟɫ ɬ - ɧɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɬɶ ɫɜɨɸ ɪɚɛɨɬɭ ; ɫɨɡɞ ɜɚɬɶ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚ , ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɪɢɧɨɫɢɥɢ ɛɵ ɥɸɞɹɦ ɩɨɥɶɡɭ ɢ ɧɟ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɹɥɢ ɛɵ ɜɪɟɞɚ ; ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɚ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥ ɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ; ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɮɨɪɦ ɵ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ ( ɨɛɵɱɚɢ ɢ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚ , ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɸɳɢɟ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ) ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɚ ɫ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɚɦɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɫ ɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɬɟɯɧɢɤɢ . ȼ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɦ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟ ɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɧɵɟ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɚ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɸɬɫɹ ɫ ɟɝɨ ɞɟɥɨɜɨɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ , ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɤ ɬɪɭɞɭ , ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢ ɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɨɫɬɢ . ȼɫɟ ɷɬɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɨ - ɩɪɨɫɨɜ , ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɫɨɞɟ ɠɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɬɢɤɢ . ɉɨɞɥɢɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɢɡɦ ɨɩɢɪɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɬɚɤɢɟ ɦɨɪɚɥ ɧɵɟ ɧɨɪɦɵ ɤɚɤ ɞɨɥɝ , ɱɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɶ , ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɤ ɫɟɛɟ ɢ ɫɜɨɢɦ ɤɨɥɥɟɝɚɦ , ɨɬɜɟ ɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɚ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɬɪɭɞɚ . Ɋɹɞ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɧɨɪɦ ɮɢɤɫɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɸɪɢɞ ɢ - ɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚɯ , ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ , ɜ ɡɚɤɨɧɚɯ , ɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɢɯɫɹ ɤ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ , ɢɧɬɟɥɥɟɤɬ ɭ - ɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ , ɚɜɬɨɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɚɜɚ . ȼɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɢ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɨɜ ɫ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɫɬɚɦɢ , ɫɨɰɢɨɥɨɝɚ ɦɢ , ɸɪɢɫɬɚɦɢ , ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫ ɚɝɪɨɧɨɦɚɦɢ , ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɜɨɞɚɦɢ , ɥɟɫɨɜɨɞɚɦɢ , ɝɟɨɥɨɝɚɦɢ ɢ ɞɪ ɭ - ɝɢɦɢ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚɦɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɸɬ ɪɟɲɚɸɳɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ . ȼ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɞɟɤɫɚɯ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɨɜ ( ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɯ , ɧɟɦɟɰɤɢɯ , ɪɨɫɫɢ ɣ - ɫɤɢɯ ) ɧɚɪɹɞɭ ɫ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦɢ , ɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɢɦɢɫɹ ɤ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɦɨɪɚɥɢ , ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɢ - ɫɬɢɤɢ , ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɬɪɭɞɚ . ɇɚ ɢɯ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɩɪ ɨ - ɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɨ ɥɢɤ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɚ ɜɵɝɥɹɞɢɬ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ : ©ɨɧ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɢɫɬ , ɨɛɥ ɚɞɚɟɬ ɧɚɛɨɪɨɦ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɜɵɤɨɜ ɢ ɭɦɟɧɢɣª , ɢɦɟɟɬ ɫɤɥɨɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɤ ɢɡɨɛɪɟɬɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɣ ɞ ɟ - ɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ , ɧɚɫɬɨɣɱɢɜ , ɫɤɪɭɩɭɥɟɡɟɧ , ɬɪɭɞɨɥɸɛɢɜ , ɛɞɢɬɟɥɟɧ , ɩɪɟɞɚɧ ɫɜɨɟɦɭ ɞɟɥɭ , ɢɫɤɪɟɧɟɧ , ɨɩɢɪɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɞɟ ɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬ . ɂɧɠɟɧɟɪ ɧɟ ɛɟɡɭɱɚɫɬɟɧ ɤ ɫɭɞɶɛɟ ɥɸɞɟɣ , ɢɛɨ ɨɧ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɸ ɢɦɢ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɛɥɚɝɨɫ ɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ . ɉɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɣ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɦɭ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɥɸɞɶɦɢ [5] . ɂɧɠɟɧɟɪɧɵɣ ɬɪɭɞ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨ ɬɟɯ ɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɥ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ , ɚ ɧɪɚɜɫɬɜɟ ɧ - ɧɵɟ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɵ ɟɝɨ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɢ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɷɬɢɤɢ . Ɍɟɯɧ ɷɬɢɤɚ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɟ ɫ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɮɨɪɦ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɢ . Ɇɨɠɧɨ ɝɨɜ ɨ - ɪɢɬɶ ɨɛ ɨɩɪɟɞɟ ɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɪɚɡɧɨɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɬɟɯɧɨɷɬɢɤɢ . ɇɨ ɫ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɣ ɧɨɪɦ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɦɨɪɚɥɢ ɨɧɚ ɪɚ ɫ - ɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜ ©ɩɪɢɤɥɚɞɧɨɣ ɷɬɢɤɢª , ɪɨɞ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɷɬɢɤɢ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɧɪɚɜɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɢɦɩɟɪɚɬɢɜ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ , ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞ ɨɬ ɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɚɤɫɢɦ ɤ ɷɬ ɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɧɨɪɦɚɦ , ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦɵɦ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨɦ . ȼ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɬɟɯɧɨɷɬɢɤɭ ɧɚɢɛ ɨ - ɥɟɟ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɬ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ( ɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɨɫɬɶ ) ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢ ɱ - ɧɨɫɬɶ . Ɉɧɢ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɩɨ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸ ɤ ɞɪɭɝɢɦ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦ ɬɟɯɧɨɷɬɢɤɢ : ɛɥ ɚ - ɝɨɫɨɫɬɨɹɧ ɢɸ ɢ ɡɞɨɪɨɜɶɸ ɥɸɞɟɣ , ɢɯ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ , ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɢ , ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɸ ɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ . Ɍɟɯɧɨɷɬɢɤɚ ɰɟɧɧ ɫɬɟɣ ɷɬɨ ɷɬɢɤɚ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ , ɩɨɫɬɭɩɤɨɜ . ȿɟ ɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɬ ɜ ɬɨɦ , ɱɬɨ ɨɧɚ ɜɵɯɨɞɢɬ ɡɚ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɵ ɬɟɯɧɢɤɢ ɞɨɛɪɨɞɟɬɟɥɟɣ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɷɬɢɤɢ ɞɨɥɝɚ , ɧɟ ɨɩɪɨɜɟɪɝɚɟɬ ɢɯ , ɚ ɧɚɯɨɞ ɢɬɫɹ ɫ ɧɢɦɢ ɜɨ ɜɡɚɢɦɧɨ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ . Ɍɟɯɧɨɷɬɢɤɚ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫ ɤɨɥɢɱ ɟ - ɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɩɨɞɫɱɟɬɨɦ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɜ . Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ ɨɞɧ ɨ - ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɪɚɜɧɢɜɚ ɦɵɯ ɜɟɳɟɣ , ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɢɯ ɬɨɠɞɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ . ɉɨɫɥɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨ ɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɬɨɠɞɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɢɦ ɩɪɢɩɢɫɵɜɚɸɬ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ( ɜɟɫ ). ɗɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɤɨɞɟɤɫɨɜ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɢ ɨɬ ɡɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɚ ɛɵɬɶ ɱɥɟɧɨɦ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɚɫɫɨɰɢɚɰɢɢ , ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɬ ɫɩ ɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɨ ɛ - ɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶ ɜ ɬɨɦ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɦ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɫɚɦ ɮɚɤɬ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɹ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤ ɨ - ɞɟɤɫɨɜ [6] ɂɧɠɟɧɟɪ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶ ɜɨ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɧɚɪɹɞɭ ɫ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɰɟɥɹɦɢ ɨ ɛ - ɳɢɟ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɰɟɥɢ ɢ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɵɜɚɬɶ ɢɯ . Ʉ ɫɮɟɪɟ ɨɬɜɟ ɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɬɧ ɨ - ɫɢɬɫɹ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ , ɜɵɯɨɞɹɳɚɹ ɡɚ ɪɚɦɤɢ ɟɝɨ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɞɚ ɧ - ɧɨɦ ɪ ɛɨɱɟɦ ɦɟɫɬɟ . ɇɚ ɤɨɦɩɟɬɟɧɬɧɨɦ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɟ ɥɟɠɢɬ , ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ , ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɚ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɭɸ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸ ɥ ɰɚɦ , ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɳɢɦ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ , ɤɚɤ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ , ɬɚɤ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ . ȼɵɫɨɤɢɟ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɤ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɟ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɨɜ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɧɨ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɮɟɪɵ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɢ ɨɫɬɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦ ɝɚɪɚɧɬɨɦ ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨɝɨ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɥɸɛɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ , ɝɥɚɜɧɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɣ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢ ɫɬɵ ɫ ɜɵɫɲɢɦ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɧɵɦ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ . ɉɪɨɜɨɞɢɦɚɹ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɨɛɪ ɚ - ɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɢɧɨɣ , ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ ɩɪɨɲɥɵɦ , ɩɨ ɯɨɞ ɤ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɢ ɞɢɩɥɨɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɨɜ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɧɨ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɮɟɪɵ . ɂɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɨɜ ɤ ɩ ɪɨɮɟ ɫ - ɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɛɭɞɭɳɟɦɭ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɭ ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢ ɷ ɮ - ɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ , ɜɥɢɹɟɬ ɧɚ ɨɰɟɧɤɭ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɭɫɩɟɯɚ , ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɭɞɨɜɥ ɟ - ɬɜɨɪ ɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɜɵɛɨɪɨɦ , ɞɟɬɟɪɦɢɧɢɪɭɹ ɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɧɨɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɪɚ ɡ - ɜɢɬɢɟ ɧɚ ɷɬɚɩ ɟ ɨɛɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɜɭɡɟ . ȼ ɬɨɠɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɭ ɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɨɜ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ ɛɭɞɭɳɟɝɨ ɜ ɡɚɞɚɧɧɨɦ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɩɨɥɟ ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɦ ɫɚɦɨɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɫɚɦɨɚɤɬɭɚɥɢɡ ɚ - ɰɢɢ , ɞɟɬɟɪɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɤɚɪɶɟɪɧɭɸ ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨɫɬɶ . ɂɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɦ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ ɹɜɥ ɹɟɬɫɹ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ , ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɪɚɞɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɥɸɞɟɣ . ȼ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɤɚɤ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚ ɭɜɚɠɟɧɢɹ , ɡɚɛɨɬɵ . Ɇɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɩɟɪɟɠɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɟ , ɱɬɨ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɢ ɤɚ ɱɟɫɬɜ ɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ . Ɇɵ ɫɱɢɬɚɟɦ , ɱɬɨ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɭɫɜɨɟɧɢɹ ɡɧɚɧɢɣ ɢɡ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɫɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɭɫɜɨɟɧɢɟ ɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɨɦ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɧɨɪɦ ɢ ɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɧɨɟ ɩɟɪɟɠɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɢɯ ɫ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɦ ɨ - ɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ . ɑɚɫɬɨ ɭɫɜɨɟɧɢɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɣ ɫɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɥɢɲɶ ɤ ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢ ɩɨɧɹɬ ɢɣ ɢɥɢ ɬɪɟɛ ɨ - ɜɚɧɢɣ , ɪɚɫɤɪɵɬɢɸ ɞɟɬɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ , ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɭ ɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɩ ɨ - ɡɢɰɢɸ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ . ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɛɵɬɶ ɬɟɫɧɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɧɨɜɵɦɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɦɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ . ɇɟɨ ɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɪɟɚɥɢɢ , ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɜɥɢɹɸɬ ɧɚ ɜɨɫɩɢɬɚɧɢɟ ( ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ , ɧɨ ɢ ɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɵɟ ). ɍɱɟɬ ɫɥɨɠɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɰɟ ɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɜ ɦɨɥɨɞɟɠɧɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɟ ɞɚɫɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɬɢɬɶ ɞɟɤɥɚɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɩɪɢɜɢɜ ɚɧɢɹ ɦ ɨ - ɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɦɨɥɨɞɟɠɢ . ɋɬɚɧ ɜɢɬɫɹ ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɵɦ , ɱɬɨ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ , ɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ , ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɨɣ ɛɭɞ ɭ - ɳɟɝɨ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɚ . ȼ ɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ , ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɡɧɚɧ ɢɣ ɫ ɫɢɫɬɟ ɦ - ɧɵɦ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɨ ɫɚɦɨɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɤɚɪɶɟɪɵ , ɜɦɟɫɬɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɥɢ ɧɨɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɚ . ɋɫɵɥɤɢ : 1. Ƚɢɥɶɛɭɯ ɘ . Ɂ . ɍɱɢɬɟɥɶ ɢ ɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɥɭɠɛɚ ɲɤɨɥɵ // ɍɱɢɬɟɥɶ ɢ ɩɫɢɯɨɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɚ . ɢɟɜ , 1993. ʋ 12. 2. Ɋɚɞɚɟɜ . ȼ . ȼ . Ɍɟɧɟɜɚɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɚ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ : ɢɡɦɟɧ ɟ - ɧɢɟ ɤɨɧɬɭɪɨɜ // Pro et Contra . 1999. Ɂɢɦɚ . 3. Ʉɭɯɚɪɟɜ ɇ . ȼ . ɇɚ ɩɭɬɢ ɤ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɫ ɨ - ɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɭ . Ɇ ., 1990. 4. Ⱦɟɪɤɚɱ Ⱥ . Ⱥ ., Ʉɭɡɶɦɢɧɚ ɇ . ȼ . Ⱥɤɦɟɨɥɨɝɢɹ : ɩɭɬɢ ɞ ɨ - ɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɜɟɪɲɢɧ ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɢɡɦɚ . Ɇ ., 1 993. 5. Ȼɨɝɞɚɧɨɜ ȿ . ɇ . ɇɪɚɜɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɱɭɜɫɬɜɚ ɜ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ : ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ // ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɚɹ ɩɟɞɚɝɨɝɢɤɚ . 1986. ʋ 4. ɋ . 41 í 46. 6. Ɂɢɧɱɟɧɤɨ ȼ . ɉ . ɉɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɹ í ɩɟɪɟɫɬɪɨɣɤɟ // ȼɟɫ ɬ - ɧɢɤ ɜɵɫɲɟɣ ɲɤɨɥɵ . 1987. ʋ 7. ɋ . 49 í 58. References (transliterated) 1. Gil މ buh Y.Z. Uchitel މ i psihologicheskaya sluzhba shkoly // Uchitel މ i psihodiagnostika. Kiev, 1993. No. 12. 2. Radaev. V.V. Tenevaya ekonomika Rossii: i menenie konturov // Pro et Contra. 1999. Zima. 3. Kuharev N.V. Na puti k professional މ nomu sovershenstvu. M., 199 0. 4. Derkach A.A., Kuz މ mina N.V. Akm ologiya: puti dost i- zheniya vershin professionalizma. M., 1993. 5. Bogdanov .N. Nravstvenn ye chuvstva v strukture lichnosti: soderzhanie i funktsii // Sovremennaya pe d- agogika. 1986. No. 4. . 41 í 46. 6. Zinchenko V.P. Psiholo giya í perestro ke // Vestnik vyssh ey shkoly. 1987. No. 7. . 49 í 58.

Приложенные файлы

  • pdf 3243784
    Размер файла: 504 kB Загрузок: 0

Добавить комментарий