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ISTOW}
TZU
UW[SYkU`
RWOSS
TZU
WTZO\OX
TWY\ITION
[]YWUVY
jerusalem Rross in the Orthodox Rhurch is often called pilgrim cross. It is widely
believed that this cross has no Orthodox roots and came after the capture of jerusalem,
_nights of the qirst Rrusade.
]ut there are ancient monuments that prove that these crosses were common in the
Uastern Rhristian Rhurch already in the 6th7th centuries.
Y similar cross also was on the
ag of ]yantium. ]ut in the place of crosses there was
the sacred abbreviation dedicated to jesus Rhrist: _ing of _ings ruling over the {ings.
Since the 16 century similar crosses were placed on the
ags of the Wussian regular army.
Their form goes bac{ to the euilateral cross, the phenomenon of St. Ronstantine. qive-
parted composition can be interpreted as the image of unity of the Orthodox Rhurch.
Rross of St. Ronstantine the ^reat was imaged in di
erent ways already during
his life. It is {nown that Umperor Ronstantine ordered to reproduce for many times
the image of cross that he had seen in his vision. One of the greatest sacred obzects for
Rhristians became a precious cross donated by St. Ronstantine in the Zagia Sophia in
Ronstantinople. It was set on a small podium, and it had short crossbeams on its ends.
This cross was imaged on the bac{ of the ]yantine coins for several centuries. Short
beams of cross on the coins became to be imaged li{e T-completions. It is possible that
the images on these coins had an in
uence on the iconography of the Teutonic and
jerusalem crosses in the 13th century.
Zowever, ^o
dfrey of ]ouillon brought to jerusalem in 1099 the
ag with cross without
T-shaped endings. Probably, it was the
ag of his father, Uustace II, with whom he became
the hero of the Norman invasion of Ungland. The
ag was not a stamp, and the military.
Its symbolism went bac{ to kabarum of St. Ronstantine. jerusalem Rross became the herb
of ^odfrey and the _nights of the Zoly Sepulchre not earlier than in the 13 century due to
the in
uence of spiritual activity of St. qrancis of Yssisi and developing heraldry.
KeywardsB
jerusalem Rross, Orthodox Rhurch, crusades, the Rross of St. Ronstan-
tine, pilgrim cross.
+   D
1.   =  . C , 1709.
' .
2. ; +   D    D      
 /   . C.:   .    =  F     , 1994.
. 154171.
O. . ;   .   /     F-  /  A
' ;  /.
3. &    F      =    ; .  ;-
 . 29,
1998. . 134141.
' ! . $.
4.      //  . !   .   D  
  A . 2004. 9 (20) . 141143.
" &.
5.   //     ;    //   . C., 1886.
. 47.
 &. .
6.           $:    +   . %. -
 .  . ;., 2003.  +   +.
 &. .
7.  +   A   /   /  . ;,
1977.
 &. .
8.   A         / /     -
+D.  ..,  . ?    D +    +; D  D   .
., 1985. . 188196.
 &..
9.                
XVIIXVIII    D           . XXIII. .,
1983. . 2641.
&  7. .
10.        /M/ +       
     $ ([Wk:http:www.icon-art.infoboo{contents.php
boo{id68) (05.04.2015).
)  ! # 8.
11. L  ;         . . 3. . 49.
 ;  ;   + DF /M/ +     $/ A    -
12.
   A      � C   F     $
  A . C , / + , 16721673 . (C).
 + A /  $/. . 1 . ;., 1999.
13.
� .
14. F   F  . & +    D D   ; -
% D: !     /   /  D, 2015. . 2545.
 7. .
15.  D/   D/ +     /   :    F -
       : !  =. . ...   .  .  : 24.00.01. C., 2009.
. 27.
16.    ;     /     
  /- / ;B  IXXV .  , 2000. . 133134.
7  . #.
17. D/ F  D/    F /  ; D XIXII   %  -
  . J ; D  . C., 1975. . 2740.
7 � . '.
18. / +  D/    +     -
  D.   ..  .   =F / ;.  II:     -
 . C.:  - C/     - %   B , 2003.
. 157163.
f  . .
19.   +        ( +  =)
  . .  .   =F / ;.  II:      . C.:
 - C/     - %   B , 2003. . 5566.
Jonathan Riley-Smith,
20. The Title of ^odfrey of ]ouillon, ]ulletin of the Institute of
Zistorical Wesearch, vol. 52, 1979.
John Franxe,
21. The Ulection and Title of ^odfrey de ]ouillon, Ranadian journal of Zistory,
18:3 (1983), 321329.
Murray
Alan V.
The Title of ^odfrey of ]ouillon as Wuler of jerusalem. Rollegium `edievale,
vol. 3, 1990, pp. 163178.
Sxhixk Herr aurath von
23. . The jerusalem Rross Palestine Uxploration qund - uarterly
Statement for 1894. $. 183189.

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